Tuesday, May 17, 2011

The Influence of Violence to Mankind

Human lives are always going up and down. We are shakable to what we have seen, heard, done and so on. Even though family life is also like the realm of tigers for sometimes. As it has been described in first chapter, the root causes of violence in family, society and so on are based on misunderstanding, greed, hatred and delusion (ignorance) which begin with unguarded mind of human beings.
Of course, “Greed: liking, wishing, longing, fondness, affection, attachment, lust, cupidity, craving, passion, self-indulgence, possessiveness, avarice; desire for the five sense objects; desire for wealth, offspring, fame, etc. Hatred: dislike, disgust, revulsion, resentment, grudge, illhumour, vexation, irritability, antagonism, aversion, anger, wrath, vengefulness. Delusion: stupidity, dullness, confusion, ignorance of essentials (e.g. the Four Noble Truths), prejudice, ideological dogmatism, fanaticism, wrong views, conceit.”13

In the reality, these three root causes have not been seen by the ignorant ones. All of these produce and bring violen ce into mankind. In Buddhist text we can find the related storied within the time of the Buddha. The story of King Ajàtasattu of Magadha, a son of Queen Vetehi, for example, should be understood. The King Ajàtasattu, raising a fourfold army, marched toward Kasi against King Pasenadi Kosala. And King Pasenadi Kosala also raising a fourfold army, launched a counter attack toward Kasi against King Ajàtasattu. These two groups of army fought a battle, and in that battle King Pasenadi Kosala defeated King Ajàtasattu and captured him alive. Here, a fighting battle arose because of greed, hatred and delusion led by unguarded mind of both Kings. Then in the early morning, a large number of monks, having put on their robes and carrying their bowls & outer robes, went into Sàvatthi for alms. Having gone for alms in Sàvatthi, after the meal, returning from their alms round, they went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As they were sitting there, they [reported these events to the Blessed One]. So, on realizing the significance of that, the Blessed One on that occasion exclaimed:
“A man may plunder as long as it serves his ends, but when others are plundered, he who has plundered gets plundered in turn. A fool thinks, 'Now's my chance,' as long as his evil has yet to ripen. But when it ripens, the fool falls into pain. Killing, you gain your killer. Conquering, you gain one who will conquer you; insulting, insult; harassing, harassment. And so, through the cycle of action, he who has plundered gets plundered in turn.”13

In addition, we human being should properly train our mind and find out the diversity of these three evil root causes. Of course, we sometimes can be asked the difference between the diversity of unwholesome roots, greed, hatred and delusion. The Buddha said, questioned thus, O monks, you may explain it to those outsiders in this way:
'Greed is a lesser fault and fades away slowly; hatred is a great fault and fades away quickly; delusion is a great fault and fades away slowly.'14

Of course, if we can reach this point of view on greed, hatred and delusion, we really understand the human mind.

End Note: 

12. Nyanaponika, Thera, The Roots of Good and Evil, p.17-18

13. Thanissaro, Bhikkhu, (tr), Saægàma Sutta, SN III.15

14. Nyanaponika, Thera, the Roots of Good and Evil, p.25

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